Monthly Archives: February 2014

Visual Studio has triggered a breakpoint

Yesterday I wasted a lot of time tracking a bug which turned out to be pretty instructive.

I am working on a tiled deferred renderer, and after adding a bunch of features, and before starting new ones, I spent some time on cleaning the development mess.

The DirectX debug device was complaining about some objects I forgot to release, so I made sure that my destructors were all doing their job. But then each time I closed the program, this message showed up:

 Visual Studio has triggered a Breakpoint

Well, it’s not really self-explanatory. I had set no breakpoint, visual studio has triggered the breakpoint itself. Clicking break leads to a SAFE_RELEASE() in the destructor of one of my singletons. When I tried “continue” the program terminated without any other errors/messages.

I first tried to comment the supposed faulty line. No more errors, but some DirectX objects are still alive. I thought that maybe the device had to be released last. I tried that, but the message came back, and breaking stop to SAFE_RELEASE(m_pd3dDevice). In fact I understand that it will always break on the last D3D released object, but if I let an object alive the message will not pop up (but an object will not be destroyed, that’s not a solution).

Obviously the bug was memory related, so I tried some analysis tools. Each one pointed me a different direction, far from the real solution. So I begin a less subtle debugging method: comment everything!

Since it was a memory problem I let only creations and destructions of my objects, removing the calls to the update and renders functions. And surprisingly it worked, no error, everything was destroyed. I then called the update functions, ok, and the render functions, and the breakpoint is back.

I continued to isolate the problem inside the rendering functions, until I have only the following code left:


// Set render targets.

ID3D11RenderTargetView* RTViews[2] = { ppAlbedo, ppNormal};

engine->GetImmediateContext()->OMSetRenderTargets(2, RTViews, 0);

// Clear render targets




I started to think that I had messed up with my quad rendering or render targets, but in fact it turns out that the evil one was the apparently innocent SetPixelShader function. It’s a simple (yet horrible) setter:

void QuadRenderer::SetPixelShader(ID3D11PixelShader* ppPixelShader)
    m_pQuadPixelShader = ppPixelShader;


This is wrong, (I’ll come back to that later), but not harmful per se.  The true horror lies in the QuadRenderer destructor:




The pixel shader is released, but which pixel shader ? It wasn’t created by the QuadRenderer, his owner must have already released it. SAFE_RELEASE check that the pointer is not null, but in that case the pointer still points to something, something that had already been released, leading to the land of unknown behaviors, or worse.

I learned several lessons thanks to that bug.

–        Destructors are not the funniest part of the code, but it needs to be done carefully, you can’t just look at the member variables and delete them all, it can be trickier than that.

–        Despite of his name, the macro SAFE_RELEASE is not that safe (obvious, but it’s easy to forget).

–        Poor design can lead to annoying bugs. When I implemented the QuadRenderer class I was thinking: “Ok, I’ll need a vertex and pixel shader, but I want to be able set the pixel shader I want”. This is wrong. I don’t want my QuadRenderer to have a pixel shader, I want it to render with a particular pixel shader. There is no need to save it. This is something to be careful, so that your destructors can be trivial.

Well, now everything is clean and I’ve learned much more than I would have thought, I can start adding new features !

“Physical” midi user interface for lazy programmers

It’s been a while since my last post, but I’ve been busy, new job, new continent, etc…

This summer I was working at Ubisoft Paris, and for one of my tasks I needed to create a sample program, to implement and an effect.  It takes some time to rewrite tools you usally have in the engine like shader builder, DX entities creators, camera class, etc, but what I really found time consuming, and annoying was everything UI related. There were a lot of settings, and the goal being to explore all of the possibilities, almost all of them had to be exposed to the user. It’s such a pain, creating your sliders/buttons/whatever, setting the position, width, height, initializing, drawing and updating, etc. I used DXUT’s UI components, I’m sure there is better tools out there, but I have to admit,  I don’t like UI programming, so I wanted to find a better way for my future projects.

So one day I grabbed my midi keyboard, wondering how hard it was to get the inputs. Turns out it’s super easy. Using the library RtMidi, and I was able to get my inputs in no time. The following week I bought a small midi controller, the Korg NanoKontrol2.

Midi user interface



Look at that, it’s a physical “G”UI!

There is everything I could want on this controller, sliders, knobs and buttons with light feedbacks. So I started to write a small midi input manager for my current project, trying to make it easy to use. There is just a simple Update() function that will receive/send all the midi messages, and all I have to do is MidiInputManager::Instance()->GetMidiValue(NKI_F1) to get the current value of the first fader. And that’s it !

Midi values are in the range 0 – 127, so I had to transform them, an annoying and error prone, so I added an initialization function: MidiInputManager::Instance()->SetMinAndMaxValues(NKI_F1, 50, 500), and the results of the GetMidiValue function are already in the correct range.


Of course there are some drawbacks. The faders and knobs are not motorized, meaning that if you have saved a default value, you can’t see it on the fader, and you will lose it as soon as you move the fader.

You have only 128 different values so you really need to set the correct range to have a good precision.

You have only 8 knobs and 8 faders. It’s not really a problem since you can define multiple configurations using the buttons. For example for each faders there are 3 buttons, (S)olo, (M)ute and (R)ecord. I’ve linked them has a group, meaning that only one of the three can be active at a time. So the associated fader can control a red channel while S is on, blue when M is on and so on. I’m also thinking to use multiple global configurations if I really need more buttons. Using the “track” buttons, I would be able to press next and be in “configuration 2” and have a different mappings.

I also notice some lag sometime, I’ll have to take a look at that.


I’ve uploaded a first version on github, and I’ll update it as soon as I had features. For now it’s only for the nanokontrol2, but it’s easy to port to other controllers.

I’ve made a quick video of my tiled deferred renderer to show how it can be used:


I’m sure I’m not the only one to do that, but I hope it will help or inspire someone!